- Resists becoming self-sufficient, consistently relying on others.
- A history of many intimate relationships with little, if any, space between the ending of one and the start of the next.
- Strong feelings of panic, fear, and helplessness when faced with being alone.
- Feelings easily hurt by criticism and preoccupied with pleasing others.
- Inability to make decisions or initiate actions without excessive reassurance from others.
- Frequent preoccupation with fears of being abandoned.
- All feelings of self-worth, happiness, and fulfillment derive from relationships.
- Involvement in at least two relationships wherein physical abuse occurred but had difficulty leaving the relationship.
- Avoids disagreeing with others for fear of being rejected.